According to the latest news of the Nobel Prize official website, at 17:30 on October 5th, Beijing time, the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was announced at the local Karolinska Institute, Irish medical researcher William Campbell, Japan. Scholar Omura and the Chinese pharmacist Tu Yu won the award.
It is reported that this year's award is divided into two parts: half awarded to Irish and Japanese scientists for their contribution to the treatment of aphid-caused infections; the other half awarded to the slaughter in recognition of her contribution to malaria treatment.
According to the report, the award was presented by Urbana Randall, head of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The above three were awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering new treatments for aphid parasites and malaria.
Tu Yu, female, born on December 30, 1930, pharmacist, lifelong researcher and chief researcher of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, director of artemisinin research and development center. In 1980, he was hired as a master's tutor and in 2001 he was hired as a doctoral tutor. He has been engaged in the research of Chinese medicine and Chinese and Western medicine for many years, and his outstanding contribution is to create new antimalarial drugs - artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin. In September 2011, he won the Lasker Award, which is known as the Nobel Prize "Wind Vane". This is the world's most advanced grand prize won by the Chinese biomedical community.
Parasitic diseases have been plaguing humans for thousands of years and have been one of the major medical health problems worldwide. The impact of parasitic diseases on the world's poor is particularly acute. This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has made a revolutionary contribution to the most devastating treatment of parasitic diseases.
Campbell and Omura found avermectin, a drug that radically reduces the incidence of river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, and has excellent control effects against other parasitic diseases. Artemisinin was discovered by Tu Yu, a drug that can effectively reduce the mortality rate of malaria patients. These two discoveries have found new weapons against the disease for all mankind.
The Seven Contributions of Tu Yu: The Antimalarial New Drug Artemisinin Inventor
Tu Yu is the first inventor of the new antimalarial drug artemisinin. She led the research team to inherit and carry forward the medical heritage of the motherland, from the systematic preparation of the past medical books and herbal medicines, collecting more than 2,000 kinds of prescriptions, inductively compiled into "anti-malaria prescriptions", and selected more than 200 prescriptions from the modern scientific organization. Screening, continuous improvement of extraction methods, finally found in 1971 artemisinin with 100% antimalarial effect on both malaria and monkey malaria. Through national collaboration, more than 2,000 cases have been verified, and it has been confirmed as a “high-efficiency, quick-acting, low-toxic” anti-malarial drug, especially for chloroquine-resistant falciparum. Later, she continued to study in depth, and first discovered dihydroartemisinin, and developed "complex dihydroartemisinin" composed of artemisinin and acridine antimalarial drugs to expand the efficacy to the field of immunization. The discovery of artemisinin not only found a new antimalarial drug, but also opened up a new way to find antimalarial drugs, which led to new progress in the international antimalarial field, and prompted many countries in the world to further develop artemisinin. The study has saved the lives of millions of people around the world, especially in developing countries.
First, the first inventor of the new antimalarial drug artemisinin
Malaria is a serious worldwide epidemic, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide with malaria. Since the 1960s, the original antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine have failed due to the resistance of the malaria parasite. The Vietnam War, prompting the international search for new structural types of antimalarials. Under the circumstance that a large number of domestic jobs have not been successful, the leading scientific research group takes the modern science to inherit and promote the medical heritage of the motherland as the guiding ideology, starting from systematically sorting out the history of medical books and herbal medicines, collecting more than 2,000 kinds of prescriptions, and summarizing them into Anti-malaria prescriptions, and more than 200 prescriptions were selected from them for tissue screening. After more than 380 samples have been developed, especially in combination with ancient drug use experience, from the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Ge Hong, "Elbow Reserve Emergency", Artemisia annua "Wind Juice", taking the cut malaria record, taking into account factors such as temperature and enzymatic hydrolysis, continuously improve the extraction method. Finally, in 1971, I won the anti-malarial discovery of Artemisia annua! The effective site and the effective monomer, artemisinin, were found to have 100% antimalarial effect on both malaria and monkey malaria. After a large number of drug extraction, safety experiments and self-testing, in 1972, in 1973, the effective site and artemisinin monomer, the first clinical study in the Changjiang malaria area of Hainan, confirmed that it is better than chloroquine. The new malaria drug, artemisinin, was born! The invention of artemisinin has attracted the attention of domestic and foreign experts. It is believed that "the discovery of artemisinin not only adds a new antimalarial drug, but also the significance of discovering the unique chemical structure of this new compound. It will point out new drugs for synthetic design. direction". This has led to new developments in the field of international anti-malaria, and has prompted many countries in the world to conduct further research on artemisinin. Artemisinin is the only innovative drug currently recognized internationally in China.
Second, first discovered dihydroartemisinin
In the study of the chemical structure of artemisinin, Tuyu pioneered its reduced derivative, dihydroartemisinin, in 1973. This has great significance in the study of artemisinin drugs: (1) confirming the presence of carbonyl groups in the artemisinin structure; (b) preparing various types of artemisinin derivatives from the hydroxyl groups in the structure of dihydroartemisinin To increase efficiency and expand biological activity, and to promote the research of artemisinin drugs at home and abroad, and to contribute to human health; (3) Seven years of efforts by the research team responsible for the production of clinical drugs A new generation of antimalarial drugs with 10 times higher efficacy than artemisinin and a re-ignition rate as low as 1.95%. The tablets have more outstanding "high efficiency, quick-acting, safe, small dosage, convenient oral administration, low reburning rate, and development. The advantages of Jane Lian, especially in pharmacodynamics and clinical research, confirm that the tablets that are most convenient for patients to take orally are better than the current derivatives of "injection and administration", which are considered to be the current Artemisia annua L. The prime of the generic drugs! The drug was awarded the national “Class 1 New Drug Certificate” (92-wei drug certificate X-66, 67) in 1992. It has been produced in large quantities and distributed to the international market. It is considered to be “internationally ideal for treating various types of malaria. Oral treatment drugs."
Third, complete the "Artemisia annua variety finishing and quality research"
During the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" period, he participated in the national research project "Quality Research of Common Chinese Herbal Medicine Varieties" in the "Artemisia annua Variety Finishing and Quality Research" topic, systematically studied Artemisia annua L., and isolated and identified 17 compounds, of which 5 were new compounds. And revised the fallacy of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for a long time.
Fourth, further research on the mechanism
In order to prevent the emergence of artemisinin resistance, protect the clinical service life of artemisinin and avoid abuse, cooperate with Capital Medical University to study the effect of dihydroartemisinin on the development of Plasmodium yoelii in mosquitoes. Artemisinin was found to affect the gametophytic infectivity of Plasmodium yoelii, but it did not inhibit the growth of sporozoites in mosquitoes, that is, it failed to inhibit the oocysts from continuing to develop into sporozoites. Tips Artemisinin drugs cannot be used for malaria prevention. A warning has been raised for the current use of it for prevention.
V. The development of "complex dihydroartemisinin" consisting of artemisinin and acridine antimalarials
In order to solve the problem of the spread of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria, foreign countries have paid great attention to compound research in recent years. Dihydroartemisinin is the drug of choice for current artemisinin-based drugs and has no cross-resistance to multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria. The acridine antimalarial drug, pyronidine, and 4-aminoquinoline, pyrimidine, anthraquinone and sulfonamide have no cross-resistance. A compound composed of dihydroartemisinin and pyronaridine was designed for this purpose. With the support of the Academy of Military Sciences, an experimental study was carried out to confirm the significant synergistic effect of the two drugs, with a synergy index of 7.6, which is higher than the compound artemether composed of artemether and sterol currently widely used. The effect index is 6), and there are many sites of action, and the course of treatment is short. 10 cases of falciparum malaria were treated with two drugs. Within 12-24 hours, they were taken twice, which was efficient, and no re-ignition of protozoa was observed for 40 days. Has obtained a patent certificate (patent number: ZL 99109669.X).
Six, according to clinical needs, study a variety of dosage forms
According to WHO data, about 3,000 infants and young children die every day from malaria. To this end, the development of "dihydroartemisinin suppository" is convenient for children to rectal administration. Oral tablets are prepared from artemisinin directly from Artemisia annua L., which is easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and resistant to drug resistance. All obtained the "New Drug Certificate" in 2003, which are the national medicine certificates H20030341 and H20030144.
Seven, expand the efficacy of the drug to the field of immunization
It has been found that dihydroartemisinin has a good two-way regulation in the field of immunization, which can reduce the high reactivity of B cells to reduce autoimmune diseases caused by deposition of immune complexes, and improve the immune function of T cells. With the support of the relevant departments of the North Medical University, we have used dihydroartemisinin to treat lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity diseases. It has obtained the “Drug Clinical Research Approval” (2004L02089) and Chinese invention patent (Patent No.: ZL 99103346.9) from the State Food and Drug Administration. After 100 cases of clinical observation, the total effective rate was 94%, and the effective rate was 44%. (Integrated from Chinanews.com, People.com)