As an important part of the world's traditional medicine, Chinese medicine has made great contributions to the cause of human health. Although the internationalization of Chinese medicine has not been smooth all the way in recent years, the recognition of Chinese medicine in the world is still greatly improved. With the increasing efforts of Chinese medicine to “go global”, the internationalization of Chinese medicine has ushered in new opportunities
United States: Chinese medicine is getting more vibrant
Economic Daily reporter in New York Zhang Wei
With the proliferation and development of Chinese in the United States, Chinese medicine has gradually occupied a place in the US health care field. In recent years, more and more Americans have begun to accept Chinese medicine. At present, about 5% of patients in the United States take natural medicines including Chinese medicine. There are about 12,000 Chinese medicine stores, Chinese and Western medicine stores or health food stores selling Chinese medicines in the United States, with annual sales of more than 2 billion US dollars. However, although Chinese medicine has been legalized for many years in the United States, it is still subject to many regulations and industry standards, and is subordinate to the US health care system.
The legalization of acupuncture is a symbol of the rise of Chinese medicine in the United States. On July 12, 1975, the then California Governor Brown signed the "legalization of acupuncture occupation" regulations, establishing a legal status for Chinese acupuncturists practicing medicine in the United States. Since the 1980s, many acupuncture-related industry organizations have been established, which has led to the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry organizations such as the Chinese Medicine Association. In the United States, obtaining an acupuncturist qualification usually requires a course taught by a school approved by the Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Accreditation Board, and a certificate of completion; a national acupuncture and oriental medicine certification committee or an examination prescribed by each locality. And the "Clean Needle Technology" exam approved by the "Acupuncture and Oriental Medical College Board of Directors", paying the application fee, can obtain acupuncturist license in the states that recognize Chinese medicine or so-called traditional and alternative medicine. Some state acupuncturists can also prescribe Chinese medicine after an extra test.
According to the reporter, as with the certification of other post-secondary education institutions, the Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Certification Committee is also a non-profit, non-profit organization approved by the Federal Ministry of Education. It is responsible for reviewing the qualifications of schools that train Chinese acupuncturists. Founded in 1982, the sponsoring unit is the Council of the College of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and the American Oriental Medical Association. In 1988, it was recognized by the US Department of Education as a “specialized professional” certification body, and can be qualified to confer a master's degree equivalent to an acupuncturist. The educational institution issued the qualification certificate. In 1992, it obtained the qualification for the qualification examination of the Oriental Medical Education. After the accredited acupuncture and oriental medical education institutions have graduated, they will also need to pass the corresponding examinations in accordance with the laws of each state in order to obtain the qualification of the state acupuncturist. In general, because the study period required by the acupuncturists is generally about 2,000 hours, it is only equivalent to the qualifications of nurses or medical skills.
Chinese medicine practitioners who have obtained business licenses in the United States have a lot of ways to find jobs, open clinics, run schools, open Chinese medicine stores, and so on. Graduates of Chinese medicine, regardless of bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctor's degree, are easy to find a job. However, the status and treatment of Chinese medicine practitioners in the United States and Western doctors still have some gaps. If you work, the annual salary is between 25,000 US dollars and 50,000 US dollars. If you open a clinic and open a Chinese medicine store, the annual income can reach more than 100,000 US dollars.
The management of the medical and pharmaceutical industry in the United States is very strict, and Chinese medicine still has a long way to go in the United States. At present, acupuncture has a certain foundation, but it has not yet entered the mainstream medical insurance system, and its development is subject to considerable constraints. The relevant regulations in the United States limit Chinese medicine to the scope of dietary supplements. They cannot be mentioned in their medical functions. They can be sold in general supermarkets and health care stores, and can be purchased without a doctor's prescription. However, this legal status makes it impossible for Chinese medicine to enter the medical insurance system, and it can only occupy a small market share in the US trillion-dollar health care industry. To be approved as a medicine, Chinese herbal medicines must undergo high-level biochemical, pharmacological and clinical trials, and require high research and development costs, so that most of them can only be used as food supplements. In addition, the US Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publishes a number of banned lists of proprietary Chinese medicines and Chinese herbal medicines each year.
This year marks the 40th anniversary of the legalization of acupuncture in California. The Chinese medicine industry here believes that the Western medical-led American medical system is more advanced and world-class in many respects, but this does not mean it can do anything. At present, Western medicine can make a clear diagnosis of many diseases, but it is difficult to treat, especially in the face of neurological and endocrine, metabolism, autoimmune, mental illness, cancer and other difficult diseases, it is even more difficult. Traditional Chinese medicine has made some progress in the above-mentioned fields, especially the treatment mode of "Chinese medicine + acupuncture", which has made breakthroughs in the fields of internal and external women (pediatrics), orthopedics, and even nerves, endocrinology, and immune system diseases. If Chinese medicine, especially acupuncture treatment, is included in the “National Health Protection Plan” system proposed by US President Barack Obama, achieving the integration of Chinese and Western medicine and reducing the cost of social medical care can provide simple, cheap and effective medical services for the American public.
France: Registered acupuncturists break through 10,000 people
Economic Daily reporter in Paris Chen Bo
France has a large Chinese population and is the first country to apply acupuncture therapy in Europe. As early as the 13th and 17th centuries, French merchants, sailors and travelers between the two countries introduced parts of Chinese medicine to Europe. In the past 30 years, as China and France have gradually strengthened their cooperation in the medical field, the popularity of Chinese medicine acupuncture and herbal medicine in France has been increasing. The data shows that between 95% and 98% of French people are “interested” with Chinese medical law.
The mainstream medical profession in France has characterized acupuncture and herbal remedies as “soft medicine”. The government has established the “Acupuncture Special Committee” to encourage and promote the research of Chinese doctors in the field of acupuncture treatment. At present, the registered acupuncturists in France have exceeded 10,000 people, and there are more than 10 acupuncture professional training schools. An old Chinese medicine doctor who has lived in France for more than 20 years told reporters that France has considerable advantages in the field of medical technology research and development, and also pays attention to the research and clinical trials of the Chinese medicine department. With the deepening of the combination of ancient medicine and modern technology, Chinese medicine is in France. It is expected that "the old tree will open new flowers."
In recent years, the celebration of a series of cultural years between China and France has promoted the integration and regulation of French traditional Chinese medicine institutions. More and more French patients have begun to try and trust the unique treatment of Chinese medicine. The local spread of Chinese medicine has entered a virtuous cycle. Although the "Chinese medicine fever" is gradually heating up in France, due to various reasons, Chinese medicine has not been included in the French national medical insurance system. In the absence of medical insurance support, patients need to pay high registration and medical fees when they visit a regular Chinese medicine clinic in France. The cost of a visit to more than one hundred thousand euros is not affordable for ordinary French people, which also causes Chinese medicine to be local. Become an awkward place for "noble medical".
However, many local industry players are still optimistic about the spread of Chinese medicine in France and research prospects. Some people think that Chinese medicine is more "humanized". Compared with the icy medical experience of Western medicine, visiting Chinese medicine practitioners can make patients talk to the doctor one-on-one for a long time, which is in line with the development of future medical "humanistic care". direction. In addition, from the perspective of geography, France is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa, and has always been a hotspot of various civilizations. Therefore, Chinese medicine still has good communication and development prospects in France.
Japan: Hanfang Medical is developing rapidly
Traditional Chinese medicine is called "Chinese medicine" in Japan. Almost all pharmacies have Chinese medicine counters. Doctors often prescribe Chinese medicine prescriptions according to the patient's symptoms, and patients are more willing to accept them. The Japanese herbal medicines in Japan are all finished products, and the ingredients are clearly marked on the package, the applicable symptoms and dosages, and precautions. As Japan enters an aging society, chronic diseases and comprehensive diseases are frequent, and Chinese medicine has become more useful.
In recent years, Japan's application of Chinese medicine has developed rapidly. According to statistics, 65% of doctors in Japan use Korean medicine, and more than 100,000 doctors engaged in Chinese medicine, acupuncture and massage, and 85% of people in Japan have received Chinese medicine or have received acupuncture treatment. Especially in the 1970s, after the Chinese medicine was recognized by the Japanese government, most of the Chinese medicines were reimbursed in health insurance, which greatly promoted the development of Hanfang medicine.
Japanese Han medicine has almost completely accepted the theoretical basis and clinical practice of Chinese medicine. In recent years, on the basis of popularization and application, special attention has been paid to theoretical research. The Japanese government allocates special research funds every year, concentrates on superior strength, and uses modern high-tech means to deeply understand the basic theories of Chinese medicine, especially the essence of the "certificate" product. Research; at the same time, using biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and immunology to study the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine and its compound, and achieved a number of remarkable results.
At present, nearly 40,000 people in Japan are engaged in research on Chinese medicine, and more than 10 varieties are studied each year. The Hanfang preparations are more concentrated, and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has increased the recognition standard for new general Chinese preparations to 236 prescriptions. These prescriptions are mainly from Chinese classical such as "Treatise on Febrile Diseases", "Golden Chambers" and "Qian Jin Fang". In addition, there are also modern Chinese books such as "Chinese prescription medicine", "Clinical application of Chinese prescription interpretation". There are nearly 150 kinds of Kampo preparations for medical use produced in Japan, and there are more than 80 kinds of "special medicines" with the highest output value. Among these special medicines, "Qi Tang Er San Yi Wan" (Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Chai Pu Tang, Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang, Jia Wei Xiao Yao San, Ba Wei Di Huang Wan, Xiao Qing Long Tang, Liu Jun Zi Tang, Chai Hu Guizhi) A total of 10 preparations of dried ginger soup, Maimendong soup and Chinese angelica peony soup have the highest output value. At present, most of these Kampo medicines are included in the scope of Japanese public health insurance, with annual sales of more than 100 billion yen.
Japan is also quite unique in the development and research of traditional Chinese medicine preparations. For example, in the efficacy of the preparation, the reform of the dosage form, the application of new technology, and the improvement of product quality, the advantages are obvious. In addition, in the use of Kampo medicine, Japan's major Hanfang prescription manufacturers have generally made the granules and capsules of Chinese medicine by extracting the active ingredients, thus greatly reducing the trouble of taking medicine, making it easy to take anytime and anywhere, and more importantly, strict Uniform production standards ensure the treatment and efficacy of the drug.
The core of traditional Chinese medicine is syndrome differentiation and treatment. If there is a certificate, there is a law. Only when there is a cure, there is a prescription. Therefore, drug research must be combined with traditional Chinese medicine theory. On this basis, compound medication is administered according to the condition. In the field of pharmacological research in Japan, there is a unified standard in the uniformity of compound experiments, which can accurately analyze the composition of drugs, the principle of action and the effect of compound therapy, thus ensuring the reliability and repeatability of the research. Not only that, Japan actively promotes the integration of Chinese and Western medicine. Before the Meiji Restoration, Chinese medicine was the only medical system in Japan. However, Western medicine has legally replaced Hanfang Medicine. Although Chinese medicine was restored in the 1970s, according to the “Chinese side medical system”, prescriptions for Chinese prescriptions were also issued by Western doctors. The medical knowledge is also obtained during their lectures at university or after re-education after employment. Therefore, if an integrated Chinese and Western medicine education course can be set up in the teaching stage, the doctor's level of integration of Chinese and Western medicine can be comprehensively improved, thereby improving the overall medical level.