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White Paper on Chinese Medicine in China (Full Text)
Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, December 6th The State Council Information Office published a white paper entitled "Chinese Medicine in China" on the 6th. The full text is as follows:
State Council Information Office
table of Contents
I. Historical development of Chinese medicine
Second, China's policy measures to develop Chinese medicine
Third, the inheritance and development of Chinese medicine
4. International exchange and cooperation of Chinese medicine
Mankind has created a rich and colorful world civilization in the long process of development. Chinese civilization is an important part of the diversity and diversity of world civilization. As an outstanding representative of Chinese civilization, Chinese medicine is a medical science that has been gradually formed and enriched and developed by Chinese people of all nationalities in the struggles of production and life for thousands of years and in the struggle against disease. It has not only made outstanding contributions to the prosperity of the Chinese nation, but also The progress of world civilization has had a positive impact.
In the course of historical development, traditional Chinese medicine has been inclusive, innovative and open, and has formed a unique view of life, health, disease and prevention. It has realized the integration and unification of natural sciences and humanities, and contains the profound philosophical thoughts of the Chinese nation. With the change of people's health concepts and the transformation of medical models, Chinese medicine has increasingly shown its unique value.
Since the founding of New China, China has attached great importance to and strongly supported the development of Chinese medicine. The complementary advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, mutual promotion, and joint maintenance and promotion of people's health have become important features and significant advantages of the medical and health undertakings with Chinese characteristics.
I. Historical development of Chinese medicine
1. The historical development of Chinese medicine
In ancient times, the ancestors of the Chinese nation discovered that some animals and plants could relieve the pain and accumulated some knowledge of medication. With the evolution of human beings, it began to purposefully search for drugs and methods to prevent and treat diseases. The so-called "Shen Nong tastes the hundred herbs" and "the homology of medicine and food" is the true portrayal of the time. The invention of Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600 before) wine and Shang Dynasty (pre-1600-1046) soup solution has helped to improve the effect of medication. Entering the Western Zhou Dynasty (before 1046 - 771), there was a division of labor, medical doctors, doctors and veterinarians. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (before 770-221), Bianyi summed up the experience of the predecessors and proposed the method of "seeking, smelling, asking, and cutting" four diagnostics, which laid the foundation for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of TCM. In the Qin and Han Dynasties (formerly 221-AD 220), the TCM Classics of the Yellow Emperor, systematically discussed the principles and methods of human physiology, pathology, disease, and treatment of diseases and diseases, and established the thinking mode of Chinese medicine. From the simple clinical experience accumulation to the systematic theory summary stage, the theoretical framework of Chinese medicine has been formed. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" proposed the principles and methods of diagnosis and treatment of exogenous fever (including infectious diseases such as warm epidemics), and discussed the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and other syndromes of internal injuries and diseases. The laws and principles establish the theory and method system of syndrome differentiation and treatment. At the same time, "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" summarizes the drug compatibility and pharmacological theory of Junchen Zuozhi, Qiqinghehe, Qiqiwuwei, etc. It is a very important guiding role for rational prescription, safe medication and improvement of curative effect. The foundation and development of the foundation. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Hua Tuo created the anesthetic "Ma Bo San", which pioneered the use of anesthetics for surgery. During the Western Jin Dynasty (265-317), Huangfu's "Acupuncture and Moxibustion" systematically discussed the theory of organs, meridians and so on, and initially formed the theory of meridians and acupuncture. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907), Sun Sizhen’s "Da Jing Jing Cheng" embodies the pursuit of Chinese medicine for the subtlety of medicine, sincerity, sincerity and sincerity. It is the noble moral sentiment of the Chinese nation and the excellence of civilization and wisdom in traditional Chinese medicine. Centralized expression is the core value concept of Chinese medicine culture. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica", the first scientific classification of medicinal plants in the world, innovatively developed the theory and practice of Chinese pharmacy, is a master of pharmacology and natural history. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Ye Tianshi's "warm theory" put forward the principles and methods of prevention and treatment of warm diseases and epidemics, and formed a theoretical and practical system for the prevention and treatment of epidemic diseases (infectious diseases). Since the middle of the Qing Dynasty, especially during the Republic of China, with the introduction of Western medicine, some scholars began to explore the convergence and integration of Chinese and Western medicine.
2. Characteristics of Chinese medicine
In the course of thousands of years of development, Chinese medicine has continuously absorbed and integrated advanced science and technology and humanistic thoughts in various periods, constantly innovating and developing, the theoretical system has become more and more perfect, and the technical methods have become more abundant, forming distinctive features.
First, pay attention to the whole. Chinese medicine believes that man and nature, man and society are an interconnected and inseparable unity, and the human body is also an organic whole. Pay attention to the impact of natural environment and social environment on health and disease, and believe that spirit and form are inseparable, emphasizing the synergy between physiology and psychology, and attaching importance to the interaction between physiology and psychology in health and disease.
Second, focus on “flat” and “and”. Traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes that harmony plays an important role in health. It is believed that human health lies in the harmonious coordination of various organs and functions, moderate neutralization of emotional expression, and compliance with changes in different environments, which are fundamentally the dynamic balance of yin and yang. The occurrence of disease is fundamentally due to internal and external factors, and the overall function of the person loses its dynamic balance. Maintaining health means maintaining the dynamic balance of the overall function of the person. Treating the disease is to restore the overall function of losing the dynamic balance to a state of coordination and harmony.
Third, emphasize individualization. The diagnosis and treatment of Chinese medicine emphasizes that it is a "dialectical treatment" because of people, time, and local conditions. "Differentiation" means that the individual information such as symptoms and signs collected by the four clinics (looking, smelling, asking, and cutting) is judged as a certain syndrome through analysis and synthesis. "On the treatment" is to determine the corresponding treatment according to the results of the syndrome differentiation. TCM diagnosis and treatment focuses on "sick people" and not only "human diseases", focusing on adjusting the state of the overall dysfunction of the causative factors acting on the human body.
Fourth, highlight the "treatment of disease." The core of "treating the disease" of traditional Chinese medicine is embodied in "prevention first", focusing on "no disease first prevention, disease prevention, and prevention." Traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes the close relationship between lifestyle and health. It advocates that health care is an important task. It is believed that it can be adjusted through emotions, moderate work and rest, reasonable diet, regular living, etc., and appropriate interventions can be given according to different physiques or states. To cultivate righteousness and improve the ability to resist evil, so as to achieve health care and disease prevention.
Fifth, easy to use. The diagnosis of TCM is mainly carried out by doctors to collect patient data through methods such as looking, smelling, asking, and cutting, and does not depend on various complicated instruments and equipment. Traditional Chinese medicine intervenes in both non-drug and acupuncture, massage, cupping, and scraping. Many non-drug therapies do not require complex appliances, and the required utensils (such as small splints, scraping plates, cuppings, etc.) can often be taken locally and easily promoted.
3. Historical Contribution of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine is an important component and representative of China's excellent traditional culture. It emphasizes "the Tao is natural, the unity of heaven and man", "the balance of yin and yang, harmony and harmony", "people-oriented, hanging pots and the world", reflecting the core of Chinese culture. Traditional Chinese medicine also advocates "three factors, appropriate syndrome differentiation and treatment", "solid foundation, strong bones and strong bones", "big doctors sincere, benevolent and benevolent", enriching the cultural connotation of China, understanding and transforming the world for the Chinese nation Provides useful enlightenment.
As the original medical science of the Chinese nation, traditional Chinese medicine reveals the laws of human health and disease occurrence from a macroscopic, systematic and holistic perspective. It embodies the cognitive style of the Chinese nation and is deeply integrated into the practice of production and life of the people. The unique health culture and practice have become an important means for people to treat diseases and ailments, keep fit, and prolong life, and maintain the health of the people. Historically, the Chinese nation has repeatedly passed through natural disasters, wars and plagues, but it has been able to turn to safety again and again. The population has increased and civilization has been passed down. Traditional Chinese medicine has made significant contributions.
Chinese medicine has been born in the land of China. While continuously absorbing the fruits of world civilization and enriching and developing itself, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world. As early as the Qin and Han Dynasties, Chinese medicine spread to neighboring countries and had a major impact on traditional medicine in these countries. The vaccination technology for preventing smallpox was spread throughout the world during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The "Compendium of Materia Medica" was translated into a variety of texts widely circulated, Darwin called it "an ancient Chinese encyclopedia." The magical effect of acupuncture has led to a continuous “acupuncture fever” around the world. The invention of the antimalarial drug "artemisinin" has saved the lives of millions of people around the world, especially in developing countries. At the same time, the widespread introduction of Chinese medicines such as frankincense and myrrh has enriched the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine.
Second, China's policy measures to develop Chinese medicine
China attaches great importance to the development of Chinese medicine. In the early days of the founding of New China, "Unity of Chinese and Western Medicine" was one of the three major health work guidelines, and established the status and role of Chinese medicine. In 1978, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China forwarded the "Report on Conscientiously Implementing the Party's TCM Policy and Solving the Problem of the Lack of Traditional Chinese Medicine Team", and gave strong support in the areas of human, financial and material, which effectively promoted the development of Chinese medicine. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China points out the development of modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine to protect people's health. In 1986, the State Council established a relatively independent Chinese medicine administration. Various provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government have also established Chinese medicine management institutions to provide organizational guarantee for the development of Chinese medicine. The Fourth Session of the Seventh National People's Congress listed "emphasizing both Chinese and Western medicine" as one of the five major guidelines for China's health work in the new era. In 2003, the State Council promulgated and implemented the "Regulations on Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China"; in 2009, the State Council promulgated and implemented "Several Opinions on Supporting and Promoting the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine", and gradually formed a relatively complete Chinese medicine policy system.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the party and the government have placed Chinese medicine in a more important position and made a series of major decision-making arrangements. At the National Health and Wellness Conference, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that it is necessary to "strive to promote the development of Chinese medicine." The Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the Fifth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee proposed "to adhere to the emphasis on both Chinese and Western medicine" and "support the development of Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine." In 2015, the State Council executive meeting passed the "Chinese Medicine Law (Draft)" and submitted it to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for deliberation to provide a sound policy environment and legal guarantee for the development of Chinese medicine. In 2016, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the "Outline for the "Healthy China 2030" Plan" as a program of action for promoting healthy China construction in the next 15 years, and proposed a series of tasks and measures to revitalize the development of Chinese medicine and serve the construction of a healthy China. The State Council issued the "Outline of Strategic Planning for Chinese Medicine Development (2016-2030)", which promoted the development of Chinese medicine to a national strategy and systematically promoted the development of Chinese medicine in the new era. These decision-making arrangements portrayed a grand blueprint for comprehensively revitalizing Chinese medicine, accelerating the reform of the medical and health system, building a medical and health system with Chinese characteristics, and promoting the building of a healthy China. The Chinese medicine industry entered a new historical development period.
The basic principles and main measures for the development of Chinese medicine in China:
Adhere to the people-oriented principle and realize the sharing of Chinese medicine achievements. Traditional Chinese medicine has a very deep mass base, and cultural concepts are easily accepted by the people. The work of Chinese medicine to meet the health needs of the people as the starting point and the foothold, continuously expand the supply of medical services for Chinese medicine, improve the health management level of traditional Chinese medicine at the grassroots level, promote the integrated development of traditional Chinese medicine and community services, pension, tourism, and popularize the health knowledge of Chinese medicine. Advocate healthy production and lifestyle, promote the health and well-being of the people, and ensure that the people enjoy safe, effective and convenient Chinese medicine services.
Adhere to the importance of both Chinese and Western medicine, and put Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the same important position. Adhere to the equal status of Chinese medicine and western medicine in terms of ideological understanding, legal status, academic development and practical application, improve the management system, increase financial input, formulate policies and regulations that reflect the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the coordination of Chinese and Western medicines. Develop and work together to maintain and enhance the health of the people.
Adhere to the mutual understanding between Chinese medicine and Western medicine and give full play to their respective advantages. Adhere to the mutual learning of Chinese and Western medicine, organize Western medicine to study Chinese medicine, set up modern medical courses in Chinese medicine institutions, and strengthen the cultivation of high-level Chinese and Western medicine talents. On the basis of improving basic functions, the Chinese Medicine Hospital highlights the construction of special specialist diseases, promotes the establishment of Chinese medicine departments in general hospitals and primary health care institutions, implements basic public health service Chinese medicine projects, and promotes the important role of Chinese medicine in basic medical and health services. . Establish and improve the mechanism for Chinese medicine to participate in the medical treatment of public emergencies and the prevention and treatment of major infectious diseases, and give full play to the unique advantages of traditional Chinese medicine.
Adhere to the dialectical unity of inheritance and innovation, not only maintain the characteristic advantages but also actively use modern science and technology. Establish an inheritance system of academic thoughts and clinical diagnosis and treatment experience of famous Chinese and traditional Chinese medicine experts, systematically excavate the knowledge and technology of classical Chinese medicine and folk medicine of traditional Chinese medicine. To build a scientific and technological innovation system that conforms to the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, carry out systematic research on basic theories, diagnosis and treatment techniques, and efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, organize joint research on major and difficult diseases, prevention and treatment of major infectious diseases, and prevention and treatment of common diseases, frequently-occurring diseases and chronic diseases. Research and promote the research and development of new Chinese medicine and Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment instruments and equipment.
Adhere to overall consideration and promote the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of Chinese medicine. Take Chinese medicine medical care, health care, scientific research, education, industry and culture as an organic whole, and make overall planning and coordinated development. Implement grassroots service capacity improvement projects and improve the Chinese medical service system. Implement the "treatment of disease" health project and develop Chinese medicine health services. We will carry out the construction of a national TCM clinical research base and build a collaborative innovation system for the prevention and treatment of major diseases of Chinese medicine. Implement the traditional Chinese medicine heritage and innovative talent project to enhance the quality of the Chinese medicine talent team. Promote the green development of the whole industry chain of Chinese medicine and vigorously develop non-drug therapy. Promote the upgrading of the Chinese medicine industry and foster strategic emerging industries. The “Traditional Chinese Medicine Chinese Medicine” campaign was launched to promote the core values of Chinese medicine.
Adhere to government support, participation of all parties, and jointly promote the development of Chinese medicine. Taking Chinese medicine as an important part of economic and social development, it will be included in relevant planning and financial support. Strengthen the supervision and management of Chinese medicine, implement the access system for Chinese medicine practitioners, medical institutions and proprietary Chinese medicines, and improve the system of Chinese medicine services and quality safety standards. Formulate preferential policies, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, actively create a market environment of equal participation and fair competition, and constantly stimulate the potential and vitality of the development of Chinese medicine. Encourage the society to donate money to support the Chinese medicine industry and promote social forces to open Chinese medicine service institutions.
Third, the inheritance and development of Chinese medicine
Basically establish a Chinese medical service system covering urban and rural areas. In the city, an urban Chinese medicine medical service network consisting of Chinese medicine (national medicine, Chinese and Western medicine) hospitals, Chinese medicine clinics and clinics, and general hospital Chinese medicine clinical departments and community health service institutions is formed. In the rural areas, a rural Chinese medicine medical service network consisting of county-level Chinese medicine hospitals, general hospitals (specialty hospitals, maternal and child health hospitals) Chinese medicine clinical departments, township health centers, Chinese medicine departments and village clinics is formed to provide basic Chinese medicine medical prevention and health care services. As of the end of 2015, there were 3,966 Chinese medicine hospitals across the country, including ethnic doctors.